Twitter, I hope you appreciate that I did this before my daily caffeine ritual.
On a more serious note, I’ve focused on articles that can be freely accessed. Some of these even have PDFs associated with them. Many have additional links (especially NASA and Youtube). Climate change is a rather messy, multidisciplinary topic so if you want clarification for any concepts and terminology, I’ve supplied additional sources.
Australian National University. “Humans have caused climate change for 180 years.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/08/160824135035.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
California State University, Monterey Bay. “Study examines ocean acidification effects on rockfish, a key California marine prey base.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170105213314.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
Carnegie Institution. “Tree die-off triggered by hotter temperatures.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130211135005.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
Duke University. “Tenfold jump in green tech needed to meet global emissions targets: Green innovations must be developed and spread globally 10 times faster than in the past if we are to limit warming to below the Paris Agreement’s 2 degrees C target.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170103152452.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
Durham University. “Strong effects of climate change on common bird populations in both Europe and the USA.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160331154009.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
Earth Science Communications Team. “Global Temperature.” Last modified January 3, 2017. Accessed January 7, 2017. http://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/global-temperature/
PLOS. “Climate change is already causing widespread local extinction in plant and animal species.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/12/161208152136.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum. “Domino effect: The loss of plant species triggers the extinction of animals.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170104103920.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
University of Alabama Huntsville. “2016 Edges 1998 as Warmest Year on Record.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170104130257.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
University of Bonn. “Climate change could trigger strong sea level rise: International research team presents findings from frozen ‘climate archive’ of Antarctica.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170105123158.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
University of California – Berkeley. “Global warming hiatus disproved — again: Study confirms steady warming of oceans for past 45 years.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170104143554.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
University of Sydney. “Great Barrier Reef almost drowned; climate implications: Pre-emptive attention to human impacts crucial ahead of sea-level rises.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170106092931.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
University of Liverpool. “Climatic fluctuations drove key events in human evolution, researchers find.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110921115910.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
Virginia Institute of Marine Science. “Ocean Acidification: High-tech mooring will measure beneath Antarctic ice: First year-round record of CO2 levels.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170105123209.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
Wildlife Conservation Society. “Climate change already dramatically disrupting all elements of nature.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161110115540.htm (accessed January 7, 2017).
These are articles and media that delve into concepts that the above references rely on and use to make their case.
Epstein S.; Mayeda T. (1953). “Variation of O18 content of waters from natural sources”. Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta. 4: 213–224. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(53)90051-9.
“Gibbard, P. and van Kolfschoten, T. (2004) “The Pleistocene and Holocene Epochs” Chapter 22″ (PDF). (3.1 MB) In Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, James G., and Smith, A. Gilbert (eds.), A Geologic Time Scale 2004 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN 0-521-78142-6
Lourens, L., Hilgen, F., Shackleton, N.J., Laskar, J., Wilson, D., (2004) “The Neogene Period”. In: Gradstein, F., Ogg, J., Smith, A.G. (Eds.), A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Miller, Dana L.; Mora, Claudia I.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.; Mock, Cary J.; Uhle, Maria E.; Sharp, Zachary (July 31 – September 19, 2006). “Tree-ring isotope records of tropical cyclone activity”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2006 – National Acad Sciences. 103 no. 39. National Acad Sciences. pp. 14294–14297. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606549103. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
“Paleoclimatology: The Oxygen Balance”. Nasa Earth Observatory. Nasa Earth Observatory. Retrieved 2012-02-27.
Veizer Ján; Godderis Yves; François Louis M (2000). “Evidence for decoupling of atmospheric CO2 and global climate during the Phanerozoic eon” (PDF). Nature. 408: 698–701. doi:10.1038/35047044.
Pictures are public domain and courtesy of Wikipedia
This is the Geological Time Scale (GTA)
(Above: The Atmosphere by Lutgens and Tarbuck, 1998 by Prentice-Hall, Inc)
Determining Past Climate Change – Oxygen Isotopes
- normal oxygen contains 8 protons, 8 neutrons (O16)
- a small fraction (one in a thousand) of oxygen atoms contain 8 protons, 10 neutrons (O18)
- this is an isotope of oxygen and is heavier than O16
- O16 will evaporate more readily than O18 since it is lighter
- Hence, during a warm period, the relative amount of O18 will increase in the ocean waters since more of the O16 is evaporating
- Hence, looking at the ratio of O16 to O18 in the past can give clues about global temperatures.
- Ice cores from glaciers can also give you similar information
(Above: “Determining Past Climate – Oxygen Isotopes.” http://apollo.lsc.vsc.edu/classes/met130/notes/chapter16/isotope.html)
(Above: Vostok ice core data/J.R. Petit et al.; NOAA Mauna Loa CO2 record.)